Welcome to our first lesson to learn the Arabic language. This lesson will be about the masculine singular demonstrative pronoun. Thus, the demonstrative pronoun – الْاِسْمُ الْإِشَارَةُ is the English equivalent of “this., these, that”. Also, they are of two types:
- لِلْقَرِيْبِ for a close thing or person
- لَلْبَعِيْدِ for distant ones
However, in Arabic, demonstrative pronouns have different forms for the singular, the dual, and the plural. Also, they differ depending on the nominal gender they precede. Thus, if the name is feminine, the demonstrative pronoun will also be feminine, although there are some exceptions to this rule, as discussed later inshAllah.
1. Masculine singular Demonstrative Pronoun of proximity: هَذَا – This
هَذَا means this, this one, this / this. It is a masculine singular demonstrative pronoun of proximity. Thus, it usually precedes the masculine singular word to which it relates.
The first syllable of the demonstrative pronoun “هَذَا ” is long, although its elongation is not marked in writing.
This is a door
This is a mosque
This is a key
This is a house.
This is a book.
This is a pen.
This is a desk.
|This is a chair|
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The al Madina Center for Arabic is the first language school specializing in teaching Arabic to non-Arabic speakers, based in Medina, Saudi Arabia.
2. The Interrogation in Arabic
If you want to ask a question in Arabic, so you need to add an interrogative article – أَدَاةُ الإسْتِفْهَامِ.
What is this? مَا هَذَا
مَا: before the demonstrative pronoun means “What.” Thus, if you want to say, “what is this” you say in Arabic “مَا هَذَا.”
Is…? – أَ
أَ: before the demonstrative pronoun means “Is…”. Thus, if you want to say, “Is it…” you say in Arabic, “أَ هَذَا.”
Note: In Arabic, if you want to say “yes,” you can use the expression “نَعَمْ.” Likewise, when you want to say “no,” you can use “لَا.”
مَا هَذَ؟ هَذَا بَيْتٌ
What is this? This is a house.
أَ هَذَا بَيْتٌ؟ نَعَمْ هَذَا بَيْتٌ
Is it a house? Yes, this is a house.
مَا هَذا ؟ هَذَا قَمِيْصٌ.
What is this? This is a shirt.
أَ هَذا سَرِيْرٌ ؟ لَا, هَذَا كُرْسِيٌّ.
Is this a bed? No, this is a chair.
أَ هَذا مِفْتَاحٌ ؟ لَا, هَذَا قَلَمٌ.
Is this a key? No, this is a pen
مَا هَذا ؟ هَذَا نَجْمٌ.
What is this? This is a star.
Who is this? – مَنْ هَذَا
If you want to ask a question to identify a person, we mean here a human being, you can utilize the interrogative article “مَنْ,“ which means “Who.”
مَنْ هَذا ؟ هَذَا طَبِيْبٌ.
Who is this? This is a medical doctor.
مَنْ هَذا ؟ هَذَا وَلَدٌ.
Who is this? This is a child.
مَنْ هَذا ؟ هَذَا طَالِبٌ.
Who is this? This is a student.
أَهَذا وَلَدٌ؟ لا, هَذَا رَجُلٌ.
Is this a child? No, this is a man.
مَنْ هَذَا ؟ هَذَا تَاجِرٌ.
.Who is this? This is a merchant
This is a Donkey
This is a dog.
لا, هَذَا قِطٌ.أَ هَذَا كَلْبٌ ؟
Is this a dog? No, this is a cat.
أَهَذَا حِمَارٌ؟ لا, هَذَا حِصَانٌ.
Is this a donkey? No, this is a horse.
وَ مَا هَذَا ؟ هَذَ جَمَلٌ
And what is this? This is a camel.
مَا هَذَا ؟ هَذَ دِيْكٌ
What is this? This is a rooster.
مَنْ هَذَا ؟ هَذَ مُدَرِّسٌ
Who is this? This is a teacher.
أَ هَذَا قَمِيْصٌ؟ لا, هَذَا مِنْدِيْلٌ.
Is this a shirt? No, this is a handkerchief.
3. Masculine singular Demonstrative Pronoun of distance: ذَلِكَ – That
The demonstrative pronoun “that” in Arabic is “ذَلِكَ.” It is a masculine singular demonstrative pronoun of distance. Also, it usually precedes the masculine singular word to which it relates.
ما ذَلِكَ ؟ ذَلِكَ نَجْمٌ.
What is that? That is a star.
هَذَا مَسْجِدٌ و ذَلِكَ بَيْتٌ
This a mosque and that is a house.
هَذَا حِصَانٌ و ذَلِكَ حِمَارٌ
This a horse and that is a donkey.
أَ ذَلِكَ كَلْبٌ ؟ لا, ذَلِكَ قِطٌ.
Is that a dog? No, that is a cat.
مَا ذَلِكَ ؟ ذَلِكَ سَرِيْرٌ.
What is that? That is a bed.
مَنْ هَذَا وَ مَنْ ذَلِكَ؟ هَذَا مُدَرِسٌ و ذَلِكَ إِمَامٌ
How is this and how is that? This a teacher and that is an imam.
مَا ذَلِكَ ؟ ذَلِكَ حَجَرٌ.
What is that? That is a stone.
هَذَا سُكَّرٌ و ذَلِكَ لَبَنٌ
This a sugar and that is milk.
Conclusion of the masculine singular demonstrative Pronoun
In that first lesson, you have learned how to employ the masculine singular demonstrative pronoun in the Arabic language. Thus we use in Arabic:
- هَذَا – The masculine singular demonstrative pronoun of proximity.
- ذَلِكَ – The masculine singular demonstrative pronoun of distance.
Also, you have learned how to ask questions. Indeed, now you know how to say:
- مَا – what is
- أَ – Is
- مَنْ – Who
This first lesson is now completed. The Next Arabic free lesson will be about the definite article in the Arabic language.