Welcome to our new Arabic free course. In this lesson, you are going to how to use the pronouns in Arabic inshAllah.
حامد: مَنْ أَنْتَ؟
Hamid: who are you?
محد : أنا طالبٌ بِالجامِعَةِ.
Muhammad: I am a student at the university.
حامد: أ أنت طالبٌ جديدٌ؟
Hamid: Are you a new student?
محمد: نعم. أنا طالب جديد.
Muhammad: yes. I am a new student.
حامد: مِنْ أين أنتَ؟
Hamid: from where do you come from?
محمد: أنا مِنَ الهِنْدِ.
Muhammad: I am from India.
حامدٌ: ما اسْمُكَ؟
Hamid: what is your name?
محمد: اِسْمي محمد.
Muhammad: my name is Muhammad.
حامد: و من هذا الْفَتَى الذي مَعَكَ؟
Hamid: and who is the young boy who is with you?
محمد: هو زَمِيْلي.
Muhammad: he is my colleague.
حامد: أ هو أَيْضًا من الهندِ؟
Hamid: Is he also from India?
محمد: لا. هو من اليابانِ.
Muhammad: no. He is from Japan.
حامد: ما اسمُه؟
Hamid: what is his name?
محمد: اسمُهُ حَمْزَةُ.
Muhammad: his name is Hamza.
حامد: ما لُغَتُكَ يا محمدُ؟
Hamid: what is your language o Muhammad?
محمد: لُغَتِي الأُرْدِيَّةُ.
Muhammad: my language is Urdu.
حامد: أَ هِيَ لُغَةٌ سَهْلَةٌ؟
Hamid: is it an easy language?
محمد: نعم, هي لغة سهلةٌ.
Muhammad: yes, it is an easy language.
حامد: و حمزةُ, ما لُغَتُهُ؟
Hamid: and Hamza, what is his language?
محمد: لُغَتُهُ اليابانيةُ و هي لُغَةٌ صَعْبَةٌ.
Muhammad: his language is Japanese, and it is a difficult language.
حامد: و أين أُمُّكَ؟
Hamid: and where is your mother?
محمد: هي أيضا في الْكُوَيْتِ مع أَبِي. هي مُدَرِّسَةٌ هُناك.
Muhammad: she is also in Kuwait with my father. She is a teacher there.
حامد: أ ذَهَبْتَ إلى الكويت يا محمد؟
Hamid: did you go to Kuwait o Muhammad?
محمد: نعم ذَهَبْتُ.
Muhammad: yes, I went.
حامد: و زَمِيْلُكَ, أَيْن أَبوه؟
Hamid: and your colleague, where is his father?
محمد : أَبوه في اليابان. هو تاجر كبير.
Muhammad: his father is in Japan. He is a big merchant.
حامد: أَ لَكَ أَخٌ يا محمد؟
Hamid: do you have a brother o Muhammad?
محمد: لِي أَخٌ واحِدٌ, اسمُهُ أُسامَةُ و هو مَعِي هنا في المدينةِ المُنَوَّرَةِ. و لِي أُخْتٌ واحِدَةٌ اسْمُها زَيْنَبُ, و هي في الْعِراقِ مَعَ زَوْجَها. زَوْجُها مُهَنْدِسٌ.
Muhammad: I have a unique brother, his name is Ussama, and he is with me here in Madinah al Munawwara. And I have a unique sister. Her name is Zaynab. And she is in Irak with her husband. Her husband is an engineer.
حامد: أَ عِنْدَكَ سيارةٌ يا أَخي ؟
Hamid: do you have a car o, my brother?
محمد : لا. ما عِنْدِي سيارةٌ. عندي درّاجةٌ. حمزةُ, عِنْدَهُ سيارة.
Muhammad: No. I don’t have a car. I have a bicycle. Hamza, he has a car.
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The al Madina Center for Arabic is the first language school specializing in teaching Arabic to non-Arabic speakers, based in Medina, Saudi Arabia.
2. The pronouns
In Arabic, as in English, you can use pronouns – ضَمَائِرُ. Thus, pronouns are of two types :
- The attached pronouns – الضَّمائِرُ المُتَّصِلَةُ
What is his language?
In that sentence, the pronoun “ه” is attached to the noun. The attached pronoun is a possessive pronoun and is always attached at the end of the word.
In our dialogue, you can learn the following singular pronouns:
- The detached pronouns – الضَّمَائِرُ الْمُنْفَصِلَة
حامد: مَنْ أَنْتَ؟
Hamid: who are you?
Here the pronoun “أَنْتَ” is detached.
In this dialogue, you can learn the following detached pronouns:
3. The possession
We saw that in Arabic, we indicate the possession by using the construction of الإَضافة.
The book of Muhammad
When you want to indicate the possession by using a detached pronoun, the Mudaf :
- it comes in the first position of the construction
- The Mudaf does not carry the definite article Alif Lam or any nunation (tanween)
- it is at the nominative case, which means that it carries a dammah -ُ as a final vowel. Nevertheless, its case can change if, for example, it is preceded by a preposition. It will depend on the grammatical role of the Mudaf in the sentence.
Also, you can indicate the possession in Arabic by using:
the genitive particle لِ and عِنْدَ + detached pronoun
The construction لِ + detached pronoun can indicate an alive person (brother, sister, etc.).
I have a brother.
You have a sister
He has a child.
Nevertheless, the construction عِندَ + attached pronoun can only be used to indicate the possession of a nonalive thing.
He owns a car.
You have a house.
4. The preposition مَعَ
We saw previously how to use the prepositions حُروف الجَرَّ in Arabic. The preposition مَعَ means with. Thus, it means that the noun following the preposition is at the genitive case and will carry a kasrah.
If you want to indicate the possession, for example, to say “with me, with you, etc.,” you will use the same construction that we saw previously:
مَعَ + attached pronoun
with you (male)
with you (female)
5. Masculine Nouns that never carry a Tanween – الْمَمْنُوْعُ مِنْ الصَّرْفِ
We saw in our previous lesson that some nouns that never carry a Tanween. They are called الْمَمْنُوْعُ مِنْ الصَّرْفِ. Some masculine proper nouns are exceptions, and they belong to that category.
Thus, in the genitive case, they do not carry a Kasrah but a fatha.
You have learned in this Arabic free lesson how to use:
- attached and detached pronouns
- to indicate the possession by using the preposition لِ and عِندَكَ + detached pronouns
- to use the preposition “with” – مَعِي
- the masculine nouns that never carry a Tanween – الْمَمْنُوْعُ مِنْ الصَّرْفِ
In the next lesson, inshAllah, you will learn how to use the first person attached pronoun My – ي.